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The fresh new four additional RCPs in addition to produced some other designs out-of upcoming land use

The fresh new four additional RCPs in addition to produced some other designs out-of upcoming land use

Of the dos100, inside the RCP8.5, regions of highest-occurrence cropland is evident in america, Europe, and you can Southern-East China. High-occurrence pasture portion are clear on the West All of us, Eurasia, Southern area Africa, and you may Australian continent. Primary tree was really centered from inside the north large latitudes, and you may elements of Amazonia, when you are second plant life is typical in the united states, Africa, South america and you can Eurasia. Habits out-of RCP6 is broadly similar, but demonstrably having shorter pasture fundamentally and especially on the Joined Says, Africa, Eurasia and you can Australian continent. RCPcuatro.5 has actually faster cropland total gay hookup apps free than simply possibly of early in the day RCPs, way more property no fractional cropland, and you will high-occurrence areas of second flowers in the united states, Africa and Eurasia. Spatial activities away from RCP2.six is broadly just like that from RCP4.5.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Emission and concentrations were harmonized to available historical data for the 2000–2005 period. For CO2 emissions from land-use change, in contrast, the average of the four RCP models was used as the 2005 harmonization value. On an aggregate scale, the difference between the original data and the final harmonized data are generally small. For the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the difference in total CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions of 2005 was 2 to 4%, with 10% difference for the RCP6 scenario. The difference between the harmonized and unharmonized scenarios for cumulative emissions over the 2000–2050 period in total CO2 equivalent emissions is expected to be 1 to 2%, except for the RCP6 scenario, which has a difference of 5% (Meinshausen et al. 2011b).

Pollutants

The CO2 emissions of the four RCPs correspond well with the literature range, which was part of their selection criterion (Fig. 6). The RCP8.5 is representative of the high range of non-climate policy scenarios. Most non-climate policy scenarios, in fact, predict emissions of the order of 15 to 20 GtC by the end of the century, which is close to the emission level of the RCP6. The forcing pathway of the RCP4.5 scenario is comparable to a number of climate policy scenarios and several low-emissions reference scenarios in the literature, such as the SRES B1 scenario. The RCP2.6 represents the range of lowest scenarios, which requires stringent climate policies to limit emissions.

Pollutants regarding main carbon dioxide along side RCPs. Grey area indicates the fresh 98th and you may 90th percentiles (light/dark grey) of one's books (to possess references, see Figure cuatro). The fresh dotted traces suggest four of one's SRES marker situations. Observe that the literary works opinions was definitely maybe not matched up (come across text message)

The trends in CH4 and N2O emissions are largely due to differences in the assumed climate policy along with differences in model assumptions (Fig. 6). Emissions of both CH4 and N2O show a rapidly increasing trend for the RCP8.5 (no climate policy and high population). For RCP6 and RCP4.5, CH4 emissions are more-or-less stable throughout the century, while for RCP2.6, these emissions are reduced by around 40%. The low emission trajectories for CH4 are a net result of low cost emission options for some sources (e.g. from energy production and transport), and a limited reduction for others (e.g. from livestock). Introduction of climate policy, thus, may lead to significant emission reductions, even in the short term, but will not eliminate emissions altogether. While the RCP CH4 emissions are within the ranges from the literature, there is a significant gap between RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP6 on the one hand and the high-emission RCP8.5 scenario on the other. For N2O, the scenarios are placed in similar order, although here the emissions for RCP4.5 remain stable while those for RCP6 increase over time. In this case, the RCPs do not cover the full range in the literature, but only the more representative range. One may, however, question the studies that indicate very rapidly increasing and decreasing N2O emissions, given the main sources of N2O (these are mostly agricultural and will grow at a modest rate, in the future, but to some degree are also difficult to abate). It is important to recognize that there is substantial uncertainty in base-year emissions for many substances (Granier et al. 2011). The RCP scenarios, due to the design of the harmonization process, do not fully represent this uncertainty.

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